Phytoseiidae of Taiwan (Acari: Mesostigmata)(中文書名:臺灣植綏蟎誌)

Jhih-Rong Liao(廖治榮)、Chyi-Chen Ho(何琦琛)、Hsiao-Chin Lee(李曉芹)、Chiun-Cheng Ko(柯俊成) 著

 
The Phytoseiidae are among the best-known mite families, with more than 2,700 recorded species worldwide. Some of those phytoseiids are used as biocontrol agents to fight agricultural pests. But in order to study their potential, it has become urgent to first establish a reliable taxonomy of Phytoseiidae. This book presents a general review of the classification and external morphology of the family Phytoseiidae in Taiwan and neighboring islands. Between 2009 and 2019, more than 20,000 specimens were gathered over the course of 2,500 collections. This book focuses on 64 species belonging to three subfamilies and fourteen genera, among which are five novel species and eight newly-recorded species; it provides their descriptions and illustrations, as well as information on their habitat plants and food habits.
 
植綏蟎科(捕植蟎)是最有名的蟎類之一,全世界已經紀錄了超過 2,700 種,部分種類是小型農業害蟎(蟲)的天敵。然而為了研究其生物防治潛力,可靠的分類研究即成為急迫要進行的事。本書提供一針對臺灣產植綏蟎科完整的分類研究與其外部形態的回顧,自 2009 年至 2019 年,調查超過 2,500 筆採集紀錄,20,000 筆標本。本書包含了植綏蟎科,3亞科、14 屬、64 種,並包含先前已發表的 5 新種與 8 新紀錄種;針對所有物種提供完整重新描述與繪圖,並提供其棲息植物與其食性。
 
 
Jhih-Rong Liao (廖治榮)
 
Dr. Jhih-Rong Liao is a post-doctoral fellow at National Taiwan University, Taiwan, who has a deep interest in mite taxonomy (Phytoseiidae) and the identification of mites using artificial intelligence. Liao fell in love with Acarology when he was first introduced to the study of these beautiful creatures, back in 2008. Upon learning about the high demand for mite experts in Taiwan, he started to dedicate himself to the taxonomy of Phytoseiidae, He already published various numbers of papers (18 full-text) in international SCI-E journals during his Ph.D. In these papers, he described 5 new phytoseiid species and re-described 5 new records from Taiwan. Besides, he also described 11 new oribatid species and re-described 66 new records from Taiwan. His life-long goal is to educate the public on mites, contribute to fundamental research (e.g. mite identification) for plant protection, and just keep studying those fascinating animals for the rest of his life.
廖治榮博士現職為國立臺灣大學博士後研究員,針對蟎類分類學(植綏蟎科) 研究,與應用人工智慧鑑定蟎類有極大之興趣。廖博士最早對於此種微為小動物的興趣可以追溯到2008年仍就讀大學階段,爾後他發現我國對於蟎類專家有極大的需求,廖博士便開始投身於植綏蟎科分類學研究,迄今逾十年。截至目前為止,他共發表16篇SCI期刊報告,其中6篇為第一作者,並發表5新種與 5種新紀錄種植綏蟎,同時也發表11新種與66新紀錄種甲蟎。廖博士的終身志願是希望能將此種小型生物介紹給大眾,同時對於基礎性的研究(如蟎類鑑定)與植物保護提供貢獻,並在未來繼續的研究此種迷人的小生物。
 
 
Chyi-Chen Ho (何琦琛)
 
Dr. Chyi-Chen Ho is a retired researcher of the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, and an adjunct associate professor at National Chung Hsing University and National Chiayi University. He has studied mites for 40 years, and began to focus on mite taxonomy recently, including Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae, Tarsonemidae, Acaridae, Digamasellidae, etc. He introduced Liao to the beautiful world of mites in 2008, and has taught him everything about those critters.
何琦琛博士是農業試驗所退休研究人員,國立中興大學昆蟲學系、國立嘉義大學植物醫學系兼任副教授。何琦琛博士於蟎類世界鑽研近40年,前期以害蟎與生物防治為研究主題,近期則以蟎類分類學為主,研究分類群包括葉蟎科、植綏蟎科、細蟎科、粉蟎科、雙革蟎科等。何博士在2008年引領廖博士進入蟎類世界,向其介紹這種可愛的小動物。
 
 
Hsiao-Chin Lee (李曉芹)
 
Hsiao-Chin Lee received her master’s degree from the Department of Entomology of National Taiwan University. She studied the intraspecific variation of Neoseiulus barkeri as a graduate student. The contributions she made to this book include field collection, drawings, and corrections.
李曉芹是國立臺灣大學昆蟲學系碩士,其碩士論文是以巴氏小新綏蟎的種內變異為研究題材,探討該物種於形態、分子層面之變異。她對本書提供採集、繪圖與校正等貢獻。
 
 
Chiun-Cheng Ko (柯俊成)
 
Dr. Chiun-Cheng Ko is a professor in the Department of Entomology of National Taiwan University. For the past 30 years, his focus has been small insect taxonomy, especially whiteflies (Aleyrodidae). He also has a keen interest in the use of molecular identification to tackle the issue of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.
柯俊成博士是國立臺灣大學昆蟲學系教授、研究專長是小型昆蟲分類,特別針對粉蝨科已著墨了超過30年。近年柯博士同時也針對已分子鑑定煙草粉蝨種群之議題研究,是國際少見之粉蝨分類研究專家。
 
 
The Authors
Preface
Acknowledgements
Abstract
摘要
Introduction
Historical Overview
Neighboring Countries
Taiwan
Review of Setal Chaetotaxy Research in Phytoseiidae
Biology
Review of Biological Control in Taiwan
Materials and Methods
Collecting Specimens and Preparing Mounted Slides
Locality
Depository
Description
Terminology
Taxonomy
Discussion
Biodiversity of Phytoseiid Mites from Taiwan
The Mystery of Tseng’s Specimens
Additional Characteristics in Phytoseiidae Taxonomy
Potential Predator Species
Mite Slide Preparation
Conclusion
References
Appendixes
Appendix I. Comparison of Different Setal Nomenclature Systems
Appendix II. Collection Data from Yi-Hsiung Tseng
Appendix III. Habitat Plant List of Phytoseiidae from Taiwan
Index to Taxa
 
Preface
 
Jhih-Rong Liao
 
My passion for mites can be traced back to 2006, the first time I saw mites: at the time, I could not recognize those eight-legged creatures and just called them spiders. Later, I took a course in Acarology when I was a junior. I got good grades in that class and, more importantly, learned to appreciate the beauty of mites. My academic performance until then was rather poor, and Entomology not quite my cup of tea. But discovering the secrets of mites took my life in a new direction: my mission became to tell people about those mysterious, fascinating creatures. 
 
When I was a graduate student, my advisor Dr. Chiun-Cheng Ko encouraged me to study mites associated with agriculture, in order to develop a type of plant protection based around them. I found that Phytoseiidae of Taiwan had already been studied in the past, with Yi-Hsiung Tseng having recorded 48 species. All of Tseng’s specimens, however, went missing after his retirement. Therefore, I chose to dedicate my life to studying phytoseiid mites, in the hope of finding among them the native natural enemies of the Tetranychidae, the spider mite pests causing substantial damage to Taiwanese agriculture.
 
I finished my master’s thesis two years later, and began my military service. It was during that year spent in the navy, trying to figure out my lifetime career goal while on the Pacific Ocean, that I realized mites were my life mission. I therefore went back to NTU to work towards my Ph.D. degree. However, life is not all roses: it took me three attempts to pass the doctoral entrance examination, and I had to drop out of school at one point, after failing the qualifying test. Nevertheless, I was able to finish my degree, thanks to the support of all my family and friends.
 
I have now published several research articles regarding new or newly-recorded phytoseiid mites in Taiwan. Reporting the Phytoseiidae fauna of Taiwan felt like a responsibility to me. This book contains the currently-recorded phytoseiid mites of Taiwan and neighboring islands, totaling 64 species. I made a small wish to myself that one day I would compile everything we learned and publish a comprehensive list of Taiwanese phytoseiids, so that researchers worldwide can have access to this information about Taiwan. I hope this book will not only contribute to the knowledge of phytoseiid mite biodiversity, but also provide a framework for future biological control use of these predatory mites.
 
廖治榮
 
植綏蟎科(Phytoseiidae)是一備受矚目的分類群,全世界已記錄超過2,700種。此類群的部分種類用作於生物防治的捕食性天敵,能捕食田間植食性蟎如葉蟎、節蟎,及一些小型害蟲,對於農業生態系提供重要的貢獻。臺灣與鄰近島嶼先前已經記錄53種植綏蟎,也在研究上面臨一些問題:(1)本土物種的應用研究較缺乏;(2)外來生物入侵後,本土性天敵並未被重新關注;(3)相較鄰近國家,臺灣地區的植綏蟎物種數仍有研究空間;(4)臺灣地區植綏蟎研究缺乏一完整的專著介紹;(5)植綏蟎專家曾義雄先生退休後,所有標本皆已散佚,提高了後續研究的難度。
 
本書作者於撰寫前做了長期的研究工作。首先進行臺灣地區與鄰近島嶼的普查,於田野或林間進行大量採集;普查的同時亦調查各物種的基礎生物學,包括寄主植物、發生時間、發生地區與食性等資訊;此外也藉由分析曾義雄先生的標本採集資訊,特別針對模式產地,調查模式寄主植物,找出相同物種做重新描述。作者在撰寫時,從形態分類著手,加入植綏蟎額外的特徵描述,如背板孔、足毛式、四對足毛相等,且所有的種類皆做了描述與繪圖,完成了本書《臺灣植綏蟎誌》。自2009至2019年所採集到的植綏蟎共有2,500多筆紀錄,二萬餘隻個體。另外第二作者於1985至2015年間所採集的植綏蟎標本,則暫存於臺灣大學昆蟲標本館。
 
本書以專論的形式出版,內容包含臺灣產植綏蟎生物誌,囊括臺灣產植綏蟎科共計14屬64種(含已於先前陸續發表的5新種、8新紀錄種),提供所有物種之完整形態描述與測量值及各級檢索表。此外,對於植綏蟎科的系統分類做了回顧、現況介紹、植綏蟎外部形態介紹,並探討各植綏蟎物種之生物防治潛力,希望能藉此協助臺灣種類的鑑定;所增加寄主植物與食性等資訊,能充實臺灣生物多樣性資料庫,對未來植綏蟎應用提供重要基礎。
 
本書的出版除作為分類學者的研究工具書外,亦是病蟲害防治、生物防治及自然保育生物多樣性相關領域的重要參考資料。期許本書的問世能有助於未來開發本土性植綏蟎天敵與田間實際應用,成為生物多樣性、系統發生學與親緣地理研究的重要骨幹。